Location Security is an important component of the integrity and security posture of any organisation. The protection of property, people and physical assets from actions or events that can cause loss or damage.
An organisation could have all the correct firewalls, procedures and technology in place to prevent a cyber-attack, but if someone can just walk in off the street and compromise the devices then these digital precautions could be worthless. What do we need to consider when it comes to physical security? Access Control, Surveillance/monitoring and Testing.
Access control can be implemented to restrict access to areas to certain personnel. This could range from door access systems, manned receptions, locked rooms, security fences and ensuring cabinets are locked.
When looking to implement Access Control into a property or network, it is important to consider a few points. Is it better to have a very secure perimeter with free movement inside or a less secure perimeter and address each individual area of risk?
Which rooms are sensitive or critical to operations?
What controls can be used to protect these locations?
Which areas need the highest level of access control?
With these points we can start to plan out a method of Access Control best suited to the organisation. If we take an example of a highly sensitive data storage server. These devices would need greater security than say a cleaning cupboard. So for this room we could look at location of the server room, making it centralised to the building with no external entry/exit reducing the methods of gaining access to this room.
What is meant by surveillance? The personnel and resources used within the business that monitors activity of real-world locations and facilities. For example use of notification systems or security patrols. Surveillance is very important for physical security, in both prevention and post incident recovery and as a deterrent.
CCTV systems are probably the most common form of surveillance and monitoring. They allow the ability to record activity of a combination of areas. These images can be used for capturing criminal behaviour, identifying the location of missing assets and identifying suspicious behaviour.
Although Surveillance is commonly understood as CCTV there are other means. The use of log files on networks can track activity and display events in chronological order. Ensuring logs are enabled within systems can tell you who has done certain actions and when. This can be invaluable in recovery and detection after an incident.
Physical security is a preventive step, it can be measured in how well a company can identify, respond and contain a threat. Testing is extremely important to this, as it allows for close to real world situations. It allows for adaptations to plans if they do not work correctly in practice. It also gives the ability to practice them for an actual event. These policies should be practiced regularly to minimize the likelihood of mistakes.
One final element of physical security is the organisations culture. The wearing of ID badges when in the building, accompanying visitors in sensitive areas, signing in and out of visitors should be accepted as the norm in organisations of size.
Regular reviews and communication of the security steps adopted by the organisation and a culture where the polite challenge of a stranger in the building should be encouraged.
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